Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, · The Ego and the ID, · Facts of Sigmund Freud. The Ego and the ID () by Freud - Free PDF eBook. In we published a 'Preliminary Communication'¹ on a new method of examining and treating hysterical phenomena. To this we added as concisely as . Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XIX (): The Ego and the Id and in a book which was shortly to appear—The Ego and the Id—he had made an.
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PDF | 45+ minutes read | Sigmund Freud divided mental life into three agencies or 'provinces' that is, id, ego, and superego. The id is the oldest. The Ego and the Id. By SIGMUND FREUD. The Psycho-Analytic. Institute. Translated by Joan Biviere. The Hogarth Press. "We must thank the. Abstract. This paper mainly analyses the the id, ego,and super-ego which exists in the main character Elizabeth from several acpects,such as her pursuit for love .
His argument for the formation of the super-ego hinges on the idea of internalization—a processes in which after a formerly present object becomes absent the mind creates an internal version of the same object.
He gives the example of melancholia resulting from the loss of a sexual object In cases such as these, the melancholic subject constructs a new object within the ego—to mitigate the pain of loss.
The ego, in some sense, becomes the object at least as far as the id's libido is concerned. The love of the id is redirected—away from the external world—and turned inward. Freud arrives at his conclusions about the super-ego by combining the idea of internalization with the idea of the Oedipus complex.
In early childhood, prior to the Oedipus complex, an individual forms an important identification with the father. This identification is later complicated by the object-cathexis that forms as a result of the mother's breast.
The attitude toward the father then becomes ambivalent, for the paternal figure is simultaneously identified with yet perceived as an obstacle. Later, the entire dual-natured complex is taken internally, forming a new part of his ego which has the same moral authority that a parent might have. This seems simple enough, but if the super-ego manifests itself as a father figure, then we cannot ignore the dual nature of the Oedipal father. The super-ego compels the ego to be like the father as in the primary identification and simultaneously places an injunction upon the ego, compelling it not to be like the father as in the Oedipus complex, where the male child cannot take the father's place.
Sexual instincts that stem from the id and bring about the Oedipus complex, are what dictate the shape and structure of the super-ego.
Freud returns to this later, in the final chapter. Forces within the framework: "Two Classes of Instincts"[ edit ] Having laid out the general shape and conduits of the mind, Freud goes on to elucidate the forces that act within that structure—namely, the love instinct and the death instinct.
The former is the tendency to create; the latter, the tendency to destroy. Besides this purely aesthetic reasoning, Freud gives no further argument for the existence of these two opposing instincts—save to parenthetically mention " anabolism and katabolism " 56 , the cellular processes of building up and breaking down molecules. Using these opposing instincts as the basis for further inquiry, Freud notes that there are cases where love seems to transform into hate and where hate transforms into love This would seem to indicate that there are not, in fact, two opposing instincts.
However, Freud resolves the matter by asserting the presence of a neutral energy, which can be applied to furthering either instinct. And as the energy flow shifts, it can create what appears to be the transformation of one instinct into its opposite 61— Where does this neutral energy come from?
The libido is, therefore, transformed into energy that can be applied toward creative or destructive aims.
This would seem to indicate that Eros—the love-instinct—is the primary motivation of the id.
Id, Ego and Superego
But Freud notes that, in actuality, the id's compulsion to comply with the love-instinct is actually a manifestation of the pleasure principle, or the tendency to avoid tensions that come with the love-instinct. Complying with the love instinct can sometimes especially in more primitive animals give the death-instinct free rein.
This concept returns in the following chapter, where Freud suggests that the death-instinct can take up residence in the super-ego. Key conclusions: "The Subordinate Relationships of the Ego"[ edit ] In this final chapter, Freud calls the ego "the innocent ego.
Freud cites his experiences in psychoanalysis, in which people exhibit a sense of guilt that makes them resistant to conquering their pathology. His explanation is that the super-ego condemns the ego—"[displaying] particular severity and [raging] against the ego with the utmost cruelty" 73 and giving it a deep-seated, mysterious feeling of guilt.
This is what happens when the death instinct takes hold of the super-ego and turns on the ego Sometimes the ego's unfortunate position can result in obsessional neuroses, hysteria, and even suicide—depending on the ego's reaction to the super-ego's chastisement.
Sometimes in the case of melancholia the ego has identified with a forbidden love-object so strongly, that it can't bear the super-ego's criticism and gives up—with suicide. At other times as in obsessional neuroses the object is still external to the ego, but its feelings for it are repressed, resulting in acts of external aggression.
The ego is 'like a man on horseback, who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse. If the ego fails in its attempt to use the reality principle, and anxiety is experienced, unconscious defense mechanisms are employed, to help ward off unpleasant feelings i.
The ego engages in secondary process thinking, which is rational, realistic, and orientated towards problem-solving. If a plan of action does not work, then it is thought through again until a solution is found. This is known as reality testing and enables the person to control their impulses and demonstrate self-control, via mastery of the ego. An important feature of clinical and social work is to enhance ego functioning and help the client test reality through assisting the client to think through their options.
The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others.
The superego's function is to control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression. It also has the function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection.
The superego consists of two systems: The conscience and the ideal self. The conscience can punish the ego through causing feelings of guilt. For example, if the ego gives in to the id's demands, the superego may make the person feel bad through guilt.
The ideal self or ego-ideal is an imaginary picture of how you ought to be, and represents career aspirations, how to treat other people, and how to behave as a member of society. Behavior which falls short of the ideal self may be punished by the superego through guilt.
The ideal self and conscience are largely determined in childhood from parental values and how you were brought up. McLeod, S.
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Back to top.Freud argues that according to his work with psychoanalysis the supposedly conscious ego can be shown to possess unconscious thoughts 16 when it unknowingly resists parts of itself. In early childhood, prior to the Oedipus complex, an individual forms an important identification with the father. The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others.
The ego and the id,
In , Freud received the Goethe prize and was given the freedom of the city of Vienna. It would be overly simple to assume that the unconscious and the conscious map directly onto the id and the ego, respectively. Thus the ego finds itself the seat of anxiety, beset by potential dangers from three directions 84 —by the super-ego, the id, and the external world.